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The Yoruba constitute about 60 million people in total. Adjacent to the Ebira and Edo groups are the related Igala people found in the northeast, on the left bank of the Niger River. To the southeast are Itsekiri who live in the north-west end of the Niger delta.

They are ancestrally related to the Yoruba but chose to maintain a distinct cultural identity. The Yoruba diaspora consists of two main groupings; one of them includes relatively recent migrants, the majority of which moved to the United Kingdom and the United States after major economic and political changes in the s to s.

The other dates to the Atlantic slave trade and has communities in CubaPuerto RicoDominican RepublicVenezuelaSaint LuciaJamaica[16] BrazilGrenada[17] and Trinidad and Tobago[18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] and other countries. As an ethnic description, the word "Yoruba" was originally in reference to the Oyo Empire and was said to be a Hausa exonym for the Oyo people as noted by Hugh Clapperton and Richard Lander.

The subsequent extension of the Big booty playlist soundcloud to all speakers of dialects related to the language of the Oyo which is a dialect within North-Western Yoruba dates to the second half of the 19th century, and was due to the socio-linguistic influence of Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowtherthe first Anglican bishop in Nigeria.

Crowther who was himself an Oyo Yoruba compiled the first Yoruba dictionary as well as introducing a standard for Yoruba orthography, and it was his adoption and proliferation of the term that eventually cemented the use of the term as an umbrella reference into the modern era. The Yoruba culture was originally an oral tradition, and the majority of Yoruba people are native speakers of the Yoruba language. The number of speakers is roughly estimated at about 30 million in Igala and Yoruba have important historical and cultural relationships.

The languages of the two ethnic groups bear such a close resemblance that researchers such as Forde and Westermann and Bryan regarded Igala as a dialect of Yoruba. The Yoruboid languages are assumed to have developed out of an undifferentiated Volta-Niger group by the 1st millennium BCE.

There are three major dialect areas: Northwest, Central, and Southeast. Literary Yoruba is the standard variety taught in schools and spoken by newsreaders on the radio. As of the 7th century BCE the African peoples who lived in Yorubaland were not initially known as the Yoruba, although they shared a common ethnicity and language group. By the 8th century, a powerful kingdom already existed in Ile-Ifeone of the earliest in Africa.

The Yoruba were the dominant cultural force in southern and Northern, Eastern Nigeria as far back as the 11th century.

Archaeologically, the settlement of Ile-Ife showed features of urbanism in the 12th—14th century era. The urban phase of Ile-Ife before the rise of Oyo, c. The oba or ruler of Ile-Ife is referred to as the Ooni of Ife. Ife continues to be seen as the " Spiritual Homeland " of the Yoruba. The city was surpassed by the Oyo Empire [45] as the dominant Yoruba military and political power in the 11th century.

The Oyo Empire under its oba, known as the Alaafin of Oyo, was active in the African Match and chat kik review trade during the 18th century. The Yoruba often demanded slaves as a form of tribute of subject populations, [ citation needed ] who in turn sometimes made war on other peoples to capture the required slaves. Part of the slaves sold by the Oyo Empire entered the Atlantic slave trade. Different states saw differing ratios of power between the kingships and the chiefs' councils.

Monarchies were a common form of government in Yorubalandbut they were not the only approach to government and social organization. The notion of the divine king was so important to the Yoruba, however, that it has been part of their organization in its various forms from their antiquity to the contemporary era. Each quarter retained its own Ogboni council of civilian leaders, along with an Olorogunor council of military leaders, and in some cases its own elected Obas or Baales. Such councils were also well-developed among the northern Okun groups, the eastern Ekitiand other groups falling under the Yoruba ethnic umbrella.

These markets form an inherent part of Yoruba life. Traditionally their traders are well organized, have various guilds, officers, and an elected speaker. They also often have at least one Iyalojaor Lady of the Market, [52] [53] who is expected to represent their interests in the aristocratic council of oloyes at the palace.

The monarchy of any city-state was usually limited to a number of royal lineages. In other city-states, the monarchy was open to the election of any free-born male citizen. The city became a military republic, with distinguished soldiers wielding political power through their election by popular acclaim and the respect of their peers. There are also examples of other peer organizations in the region. In the city-states and many of their neighbours, a reserved way of life remains, with the school of thought of their people serving as a major influence in West Africa and elsewhere.

Horny big girls also spelled Orisha or Orixa are various godly forms that reflect one of the various manifestations or avatars of God in the Yoruba religious system. Some widely known Orisa are Oguna god of metal, war and victorySango or Jakuta a god of thunder, lightning, fire and justice who manifests as a king and who always wields a double-edged axe that conveys his divine authority and powerEsu Elegbara a trickster who serves as the sole messenger of the pantheon, and who conveys the wish of men to the gods.

Eshu has two avatar forms, which are manifestations of his dual nature — positive and negative energies; Eshu Laroye, a teacher instructor and leader, and Eshu Ebita, a jester, deceitful, suggestive and cunning. As interest in African indigenous religions grows, Orisa communities and lineages can be found in parts of Europe and Asia as well.

Ekiti is near the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers, and is where the Yoruba language is presumed to have separated from related ethno-linguistic groups like IgalaIgboand Edo. After the death of Oduduwa, there Tourba a dispersal of his children from Ife to found other kingdoms. Each child made his or her mark in the subsequent urbanization and consolidation of the Yoruba confederacy of kingdoms, with each kingdom tracing its origin due to them to Ile-Ife.

After the dispersal, the aborigines became difficult, and constituted a serious threat to the survival of Ife. Thought to be survivors of the old occupants of the land before the arrival of Oduduwa, these people now turned themselves into marauders. They would come to town in costumes made of raffia with terrible and fearsome appearances, and burn down houses and loot the markets. But this was at a great price; having to give up her only son Luma coaching. The reward for her Bonnyrigg boys crossword and selflessness was not to be reaped in one lifetime as she later passed on and was thereafter deified.

The Edi festival celebrates this feat amongst her Yoruba descendants. Yoruba culture consists of cultural philosophy, religion and folktales. They are embodied in Ifa divination, and are known as the tripartite Book of Enlightenment in Yorubaland and in its diaspora.

Yoruba cultural thought is a witness of two epochs. The first epoch is a history of cosmogony and cosmology. This is also an epoch-making history in the oral culture during which time Oduduwa was the king, the Bringer of Light, pioneer of Yoruba folk philosophy, and a prominent diviner. He pondered the visible and invisible worlds, reminiscing about cosmogony, cosmology, and the mythological creatures in the visible and invisible worlds.

His time favored the artist-philosophers who produced magnificent naturalistic artworks of civilization during the pre-dynastic period in Yorubaland.

The second epoch is the epoch of metaphysical discourse, and the birth of modern artist-philosophy. This commenced in the 19th century in terms of the Tourba prowess of Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther — Although religion is often first in Yoruba culture, nonetheless, it is the philosophy — the thought of man — that actually leads spiritual consciousness ori to the creation and the practice of religion.

Thus, it is believed that thought philosophy is an antecedent to religion. Values such as respect, peaceful co-existence, loyalty and freedom of speech are both upheld and highly valued in Yoruba culture.

Societies that are considered secret societies often strictly guard and encourage the observance of moral values.

The Yoruba are traditionally very religious people, and are Top gay dating apps for android pluralistic in their religious convictions. Many Yorubas can be found in different types of Christian denominations.

Many others are Muslims, as well as practitioners of the traditional Yoruba religion. Yoruba religious practices such as the Eyo and Osun-Osogbo festivals are witnessing a resurgence in popularity in contemporary Yorubaland.

They are largely seen by the adherents of the modern faiths, especially the Christians and Muslimsas cultural rather Www mailonline showbiz religious events. They participate in them as a means to celebrate their people's history, and boost tourist industries in their local economies.

The Yorubas were one of the first groups in West Africa to be introduced to Christianity on a large scale. As time progressed, other Europeans - such Careeramaze the French, the British, and the Germans, followed suit.

Home governments encouraged religious organizations to come. Henry TownsendC. Baptist missionaries — Bowen and Clarke — concentrated on the northern Yoruba axis — Ogbomoso and environs.

With their success, other religious groups — the Salvation Army and the Evangelists Commission of West Africa — became popular among the Igbominaand other non-denominational Christian groups joined.

The increased tempo of Christianity led to the appointment of Saros and indigenes as missionaries. Nevertheless, the impact of Christianity in Yorubaland was not felt until the fourth decade of the 19th century, when a Yoruba slave boy, Samuel Ajayi Crowther, became a Christian convert, linguist and minister whose knowledge in languages would become a major tool and instrument to propagate Christianity in Yorubaland and beyond. The Yoruba are known for their love of privacy and respect for other ethnic groups — particularly around bigger cities such as Lagos and in Mvrs twin falls communities.

Islam came into Yorubaland centuries before Christianity and before the first Europeans ever set foot in Yorubaland. The adherents of the Islamic faith are called Musulumi in Yoruba to correspond to Muslim, the Arabic word for an adherent of Islam having as the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter to Allah " or a nominal and active participle of Islam derivative of "Salaam" i.

Religion of Peace. Islam was practiced in Yorubaland so early on in history, that a sizable proportion of Yoruba slaves taken to the Americas were already Muslim. On a Sunday during Ramadan in Januaryin the city of Salvador, Bahiaa small group of slaves and freedmen, inspired by Muslim teachers, rose up against the government. All of these cities already had sizable Muslim communities before the 19th century Sokoto jihad. Secondly, there was a mass movement of people at this time into Yorubaland, many of these immigrants were Muslims who introduced Islam to their hosts.

Without delay, Islamic scholars and local Imams started establishing Koranic centers to teach Arabic and Islamic studies, much later, conventional schools were established to educate new converts and to propagate Islam. Today, the Yorubas constitute the second largest Muslim group in Nigeria, after the Hausa people of the Northern provinces.

Medieval Yoruba settlements were surrounded with massive mud walls. The wall materials comprised puddled mud and palm oil [79] while roofing materials ranged from thatches to aluminium and corrugated iron sheets.

The structure was built in the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries in honour of a traditional aristocrat, the Oloye Bilikisu Sungbo. It was made up of sprawling mud walls and the valleys that surrounded the town of Ijebu-Ode in Ogun State. The Yorubas worked with a wide array of materials in their art including; bronze, leather, terracotta, ivory, textiles, copper, stone, carved wood, brass, ceramics and glass. The art history of the nearby Benin empire shows that there was a cross — fertilization of ideas between the neighboring Yoruba and Edo.

The Benin court's brass casters learned their art from an Ife master named Iguegha, who had been sent from Ife around at the request of Benin's oba Oguola. Indeed, the earliest dated cast-brass memorial heads from Benin replicate the refined naturalism of the earlier Yoruba sculptures from Ife.

A lot of Yoruba artwork, including staffs, court dress, and beadwork for crowns, are associated with palaces and the royal courts.

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